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2021考研英語:語法長難句之定語從句和狀語從句

  摘要:今天帶來的是定語從句和狀語從句的內容,語法很重要,大家要認真學習,打好考研英語的基礎。記得收藏起來哦~

  第一部分:定語從句

  一、理論常識

  在復合句中作定語,修飾主句中某一名詞或代詞的從句。

  結構:先行詞+關系詞(分為關系副詞和關系代詞)+從句

  關系代詞(that , who , which , whose , as)

  關系副詞(when , where , why , how)

  定語從句分為限制性定語從句及非限制定語從句,限定從直接放在先行詞后,非限定從與先行詞之間要加逗號。

  二、試題舉例

  例句1:

  The Aswan Dam , for example , stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left-all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity .

  【重點詞匯解析】deprive sb. of sth. 剝奪某人某物;silt,n. 淤泥 v. (使)淤塞

  【參考翻譯】例如,阿斯旺大壩阻止了尼羅河的洪水侵襲,但是也奪去了埃及的洪水留下的肥沃淤泥---這一切換來的卻是一個巨大的病態的水庫,這個水庫積滿了淤泥,以至于幾乎不能發電了。

  例句2:

  The second , by Joshua Greenberge , takes a more empirical approach to universality , identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many languages , which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints . (2012,49)

  【重點詞匯解析】empirical,adj. 經驗主義的;result from 由……造成;cognitive,adj. 認知的

  【參考翻譯】第二個為此做出努力的人是約書亞·格林伯格,他采用經驗主義的方法來研究普遍性,確認多種語言(尤其是語序方面的)共同特征,這些特征被認為是體現了由于認知局限性而帶來的偏見。

  例句3:

  His function is analogous to that of a judge , who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a matter as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision . (2006,47)

  【重點詞匯解析】analogous,adj. 類似的;reveal,vt. 揭露;reason,n. 理由 v. 推論

  【參考翻譯】他的職責類似于法官的職責,后者必須承擔起這樣的責任:用盡可能明顯的方式來揭示讓他做出決定的推理過程。

  第二部分:狀語從句

  一、理論常識

  狀語從句,屬于副詞性從句,簡單說就是從句在句子中擔任狀語,分為時間、目的、地點、條件、方式、讓步、比較、結果、原因9種狀語從句。

  時間引導詞:

  when , after , before , while , until , till , since , as soon as , everytime , the moment等

  地點引導詞:where , wherever等

  原因引導詞:because , since=now that , as等

  條件引導詞:

  if , whether , unless , as long as ,on condition that , providing that等

  結果引導詞:so / such ... that , so等

  目的引導詞:in order that , so that等

  讓步引導詞:

  though , although , however , whatever=no matter what even if , even though , as (倒裝) 等

  方式引導詞:as , as if等

  比較引導詞:

  than , as ... as , the more ... , the more ... 等

  二、試題舉例

  例句1:

  While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role , informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a child's development .

  【重點詞匯解析】transmit,vt. 傳輸、傳播 vi. 傳輸、發射信號;(in)formal,adj. (非)正式的

  【參考翻譯】盡管正式的學習過程是由挑選出來擔當此角色的教師來進行的,非正式的學習過程卻是作為孩子成長的自然一部分而完成的。

  例句2:

  While it is true that this competition may induce efforts to expand territory at the expense of others , and thus lead to conflict , it cannot be said that war-like conflict among other nations is inevitable , although competition is .

  【重點詞匯解析】territory,n. 領土、版圖;expense,n. 代價、損失 vt. 向……收取費用;inevitable,adj. 不可避免的

  【參考翻譯】雖然這種競爭會引發以他人利益為代價的領土擴張行動,因此也會引發沖突,但卻不能認為類似于戰爭的國家間的沖突不可避免,盡管競爭是不可避免的。

  例句3:

  While it is true that to date the Internet seems to be favoring the most developed sectors of the international community over the less developed , this need not always be the case .

  【重點詞匯解析】favor,vt. 喜歡、贊成 n. 喜愛

  【參考翻譯】盡管迄今為止互聯網似乎更加青睞國際社會中的發達領域,而非不太發達的領域,情形并不總是如此。

 

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